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a number used to protect private communications by preventing replay attacks

Cryptographic nonce

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Nonces are random or pseudo-random numbers that authentication protocols attach to communications. Sometimes these numbers include a timestamp to intensity the fleeting nature of these communications.

If subsequent requests to a server, for example during digest access authentication via username and password, contain the wrong nonce and/or timestamp, they are rejected.

When used in this way, nonces prevent replay attacks that rely on impersonating prior communications in order to gain access.

Cryptographic nonces are used in proof-of-work systems temuland crypto glossary - proof of work Proof of work (PoW) is a decentralized consensus mechanism that requires members of a network to expend effort solving an arbitrary mathematical puzzle to prevent anybody from gaming the system.Learn more to vary the input to a cryptographic hash function A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that maps data of arbitrary size to a bit array of a fixed size (the "hash). A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that maps data of arbitrary size to a bit array of a fixed size (the "hash).Learn more so as to obtain a hash for a certain input that fulfils certain arbitrary conditions.

In doing so, it becomes far more difficult to create a “desirable” hash than to verify it, shifting the burden of work onto one side of a transaction or system.

Similarly, the BitcoinBitcoin1$ 16,516.210.18%-6.01%-15.89%details blockchain hashing algorithm can be tuned to an arbitrary difficulty by changing the required minimum/maximum value of the hash so that the number of bitcoins awarded for new blocks does not increase linearly with increased network computation power as new users join.